Ground Classes

A good foundation is pivotal while raising a tall building, likewise, before you headstart your Commercial Pilot Training, a thorough knowledge of all the CPL subjects is mandatory. This is where the ground classes come in handy. DGCA mandates a candidate should pass all these subject papers along with getting their 200 flying hours before a Commercial Pilot License is issued. The respective subjects are Air Regulations, Aviation Meteorology, Technical general, Technical specific, Air Navigation and Radio Telephony(RTR).



SPL stands for Student Pilot’s License. SPL is the preliminary license one needs to achieve before getting a PPL and CPL. An oral examination shall be conducted by a representative of the DGCA on the following subjects for the issuance of an SPL-

    1. Air Regulation.
    2. Air Navigation
    3. Aviation Meteorology
    4. Aircraft Technical (General & Specific)


Private Pilot License Syllabus

Private Pilot License (PPL) is a non-commercial private pilot license course of 8 months duration. PPL license holders can fly non-commercial aircraft as a hobby, flying aircraft for business purposes or fly their own aircraft too. After getting a Pilot License, students will have job opportunities in Pilot Training Centers, Aviation Industry, Flying clubs, and more.

PPL is a pilot program that allows a person to do pilot duties on private aircraft. The syllabus of this course is designed and structured by the Director-General of Civil Aviation, Govt. of India. Following subjects will give you an idea of study:-

    • Fundamentals of Flight
    • Check to Ride Preparation
    • Soft/short field takeoff & Landings
    • Pilot age and Dead Reckoning
    • Traffic Patterns
    • Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes
    • Discovering Aviation
    • Radio Communications, Navigation, Systems/Facilities, and Radar Services
    • Aerodynamic principles The power plant and Related Systems
    • Flight Operations
    • Emergency Procedures
    • The Flight Planning Process
    • Take off and landings

Tabulated below are the common subjects followed for this course and one can check the major topics covered in each of the subjects throughout the duration of the course.

Flight rules, Air Traffic Control Practices, Procedures and Regulations Concerning Operation of Aircraft.

Elementary Principles, Use of Aeronautical Maps and Charts, Time, Magnetism, Magnetic Compasses, Simple Navigation and Simple Flight Planning.

Elementary Aviation Meteorology, Significance of Aerodrome Warnings, Elementary Knowledge of Met Charts, Met Procedures, Cross Country Flights and Salient Features of Indian Climatology.

Theory of Flights, Aircraft, Engine, Instruments, Operating Limitations, Handling, Care and Pre-Flight Inspection.

Transmission and Interpretation of Aural Signals and Operations of Radiotelephony Apparatus on Aircraft.

The private Pilot License (PPL) course is based on flying aircraft. There are various subjects in the PPL program that cover air regulations, aviation meteorology, air navigation, and aircraft & its engines. The students must have to take study seriously to make a bright future in aviation. Furthermore, if the candidate has the following skills, then this program can become easy for him/ her:-

      • Clear Communication
      • Situational Awareness
      • Team-Work Skills
      • Decisiveness & Quick Thinking Skills
      • The Ability to Remain Calm
      • Mentality — Confidence, Attitude & Self-Discipline
      • Leadership Quality

The above skill is an advantage of PPL study. There are various institutes, colleges, and universities in India that offer the best quality infrastructure, placement in the top organization, experienced experts classes, and many more benefits and facilities.


Commercial Pilot License (CPL) training can be done from flying schools or institutions that impart knowledge theoretically including practical training to their candidates. The commercial pilot license course syllabus is offered by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), they ensure that the following areas to the level of performance required from a Commercial Pilot CPL are the most popular course in aviation that allows students to obtain a license in commercial flight. They perform flying work in single and multi-engine airplanes and fly aircraft as a co-pilot in aircraft. CPL course’s main focus is to operate the aircraft in the air. Commercial Pilot License holders can apply for a job in top government and private airlines worldwide.

Various topics will be covered in Commercial Pilot License (CPL) courses. The following subjects are the part of Commercial Pilot License (CPL) course.

Commercial Pilot Training Subjects

Students for the issue of a CPL shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted in the following subjects:

In Air Law you will learn about all the rules of aviation that have to be followed; Whether you are on a plane or at the airport. There are various regulatory bodies which make rules in aviation and they have to be strictly followed. ICAO is the international civil aviation organization that makes standards and recommended practices (SARPs) in the civil aviation industry.

The airframe is a basic structure of an aircraft designed to withstand all aerodynamic forces as well as stresses. This does not include its powerplant and instrumentation; Its main components are the wings, fuselage and landing gear.

Airframe systems are required for an aircraft to operate efficiently and safely, their complexity varying with the type of aircraft. It includes flight control system, landing gear, hydraulic system, electrical system, fuel system and fire protection system etc.

The power plant provides mechanical force to power the aircraft and associated accessories necessary for flight.

Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments that are used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities.

Instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft are flight instruments that provide the pilot with data about the flight situation of aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, heading and much more other crucial information in flight.

Mass and balance are an important factor in an aircraft’s performance and stability under various operating conditions. The mass of an aircraft and the location of its center of gravity are vital information required before commencement of any flight.

This subject discusses the factors that affect aircraft performance, which include the aircraft weight, atmospheric conditions, runway environment, and the fundamental physical laws governing the forces acting on an aircraft.

Airplane performance can be divided into two general categories. The first is airworthiness standards, for which compliance demonstration is under the responsibility of the airplane manufacturer or type certificate holder. The other is operating standards which must be complied with by the airplane operator.

Flight planning is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight. Flight planning includes – Preflight Preparation; NOTAM Briefing; Ground Facilities and Servicing; Departure, destination and alternate aerodromes; Airway routings and Airspace structure; Meteorological Briefing; and Decision-point procedure etc.

Flight monitoring is the observation and interpretation of the flight path data, aircraft-configuration status, automation modes and on-board systems appropriate to the phase of flight.

This subject discusses the factors that affect helicopter performance, which include the weight, atmospheric conditions, and the fundamental physical laws governing the forces acting on an aircraft. The performance of helicopter depends on the airworthiness standards and operating standards.

The study of Human Factors is about understanding human behavior and performance. When applied to aviation operations, Human Factors knowledge is used to optimize the fit between people and the systems in which they work in order to improve safety and performance. Human Performance represents the human contribution to system performance and refers to how people perform their work.

The study of the atmosphere is called meteorology that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and its phenomena, including both weather and climate.

General navigation involves the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of an aircraft from one place to another. The techniques used for navigation in the air will depend on whether the aircraft is flying under visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR).

Radio navigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth, either the vessel or an obstruction. Radio navigation aids include mainly by reference to indications of bearing and distance indicated on VOR, DME and ADF equipment located on the aircraft. This information is derived from ground radio beacons (VOR, DME and NDBs or broadcast stations).

All aircraft operations are conducted in accordance with all applicable local and national laws, and manufacturers’ aircraft limitations. Airlines use SPOs, Standard Operating Procedures that provide a flight crew with a step by step guide to effectively and safely carry out operations.

The principles of flight are aerodynamics which deals with the motion of the air and the forces acting on the aircraft. There are four forces acting on an airplane at all times while an airplane is flying – lift, weight, thrust and drag. For flight, an aircraft’s lift must balance its weight, and its thrust must exceed its drag.

This subject discusses aerodynamic fundamentals and principles as they apply to helicopters. The content relates to flight operations and performance of normal flight tasks. It covers theory and application of aerodynamics for the pilot, whether in flight training or general flight operations.

This topic discusses the way of communication between pilots, aviation personnel, and air traffic controllers. This includes transmission and reception techniques, standard words and phrases used in communication, data link messaging, distress and urgency communication procedures.